Study Island

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Generation Date: 05/05/2014
Generated By: Jennifer Roose


European Settlement

1.      During the seventeenth-century, New England had one of the healthiest populations in the world. The region had a low population density and a higher life expectancy than in England. It was home to the first society in history in which grandparents were common. The region's population lived in small, close-knit towns and villages. Around 90 to 95 percent of the colonial villagers were able to support themselves by subsistence farming.

According to the passage, why was life expectancy in colonial New England considerably higher than life expectancy in the country of England?

Bubble

A.

low population and no considerable staple crops for export

 

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B.

high population and no considerable staple crops for export

 

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C.

high population and the low rates of subsistence farming

 

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D.

low population and high rates of subsistence farming


European Settlement

2.      Soon after arriving at Jamestown, the colonists were attacked by the Algonquian natives. Within a month, the colonists built a triangular-shaped, wooden wall to defend their small settlement, which consisted of a storehouse, church, and several houses. Disease, famine, and the on-going attacks from local tribes strained the new colony. Its only hope came from the colony's trade with the Powhatan natives. The Powhatans gave the colonists food in exchange for iron and copper tools. In time, the colonists abandoned their fort and moved the settlement further inland.

Other than attacks by the Algonquian, what contributed most to the high mortality rates among Jamestown colonists?

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A.

They were not used to the diet introduced by the Native Americans.

 

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B.

They forgot to bring enough provisions to last through the winter.

 

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C.

They were not used to the area's climate or its natural resources.

 

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D.

They only knew how to grow tobacco, which was not good to eat.


European Settlement

3. What is the best reason why early settlements were near waterways?

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A.

Waterways were critical for the colonial American economy.

 

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B.

Waterways were the only source of water for settlers.

 

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C.

Waterways were the only method by which colonial people could travel.

 

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D.

Waterways were an important component of colonial spiritual life.


European Settlement

4. What is the best explanation of why early colonial North America developed into three distinct regions?

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A.

Each region was settled by people from England and shaped by their specific plans for the governmental structure.

 

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B.

Each region was settled by people of different origins and was shaped by the natural resources available.

 

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C.

Each region was settled by people of different origins and shaped by their growing dependence on slavery.

 

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D.

Each region was settled by people from England and shaped by their specific plans for the natural environment.


European Settlement

5. Which geographical region in colonial North America was best known for its cold climate and strong Puritan population?

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A.

New England

 

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B.

Southern colonies

 

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C.

Middle Passage

 

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D.

middle colonies


European Settlement

6. Why did geographical barriers such as rivers and mountains limit settlement in colonial North America?

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A.

Colonists were afraid of uncharted geographical areas.

 

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B.

Colonists were unaware that North America extended further.

 

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C.

Religious beliefs prevented colonists from exploring.

 

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D.

Transportation technology was not well-developed.


European Settlement

7. Which geographical region in colonial North America was best known for its focus on agriculture and society based on English aristocracy?

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A.

middle colonies

 

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B.

New England

 

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C.

Southern colonies

 

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D.

Jamestown


European Settlement

8. In the early days of colonial North America, which region was considered to have the poorest economy?

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A.

middle colonies

 

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B.

Southern colonies

 

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C.

New England

 

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D.

Northwest Territories


European Settlement

9. Which term best describes the primary reason for population growth in the Middle Colonies?

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A.

slavery

 

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B.

immigration

 

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C.

large families

 

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D.

mercantilism


European Settlement

10. Slaves in the Chesapeake region expanded their numbers through natural increases in birthrate, yet those in South Carolina did not. What is the most likely reason for this difference?

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A.

The South Carolina slaves were not encouraged to bear offspring.

 

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B.

The Chesapeake slaves lived and worked under better conditions.

 

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C.

The South Carolina slaves lived and worked under better conditions.

 

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D.

The Chesapeake slaves were not encouraged to bear offspring.


European Settlement

11. Which term best describes religious beliefs in the Middle colonies?

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A.

diverse

 

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B.

Puritan

 

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C.

Quaker

 

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D.

Catholic


European Settlement

12.      In colonial North America, slavery practices often varied due to an area's climate and geography. Because the South had a long growing season, farmers could make large profits by harvesting multiple times a year. By the mid-1700s, the Southern colonies had become very dependent on slavery. Southern landowners purchased more and more slaves to increase production in their tobacco, rice, cotton, sugar, and indigo fields. In the Northern colonies, there was a lower need for slaves; however, Northern businessmen still made large profits by investing in slave trade. Slaves that lived in the North often worked as household servants, skilled laborers, or as field hands on small farms.

How were geography and slavery related?

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A.

People in the North didn’t believe in using slaves for labor, while people in the South preferred slave labor.

 

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B.

The geography of Northern plantations required more labor then the geography of Southern plantations.

 

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C.

People in the South didn't believe in using slaves for labor, while people in the North preferred slave labor.

 

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D.

Geography influenced the types of crops grown, and the crops required different levels of labor.


European Settlement

13.

"The country of New York is very pleasant in summer, but in the winter very cold, as all the Northern Plantations are. Their chief commodities are provisions, bread, lumber, and fish in abundance; all which are very good, and some skins and furs are exported. The city is governed by a mayor (as in England), is seated on an island, and lies very convenient for trade and defense, having a regular fort."

—John Lawson, 1709


According to the passage, how did geography influence economic trade in New York?

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A.

The geography limited the variety of commodities in New York.

 

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B.

The location was ideal for trade from both sea and inland sources.

 

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C.

The climate made agriculture difficult to cultivate in New York.

 

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D.

The location was a great place to farm in the winter months.


European Settlement

14.      During the seventeenth-century, New England had one of the healthiest populations in the world. The region had a low population density and a higher life expectancy than in England. It was home to the first society in history in which grandparents were common. The region's population lived in small, close-knit towns and villages. Around 90 to 95 percent of the colonial villagers were able to support themselves by subsistence farming.

According to the passage, why was life expectancy in colonial New England considerably higher than life expectancy in the country of England?

Bubble

A.

low population and no considerable staple crops for export

 

Bubble

B.

high population and no considerable staple crops for export

 

Bubble

C.

low population and high rates of subsistence farming

 

Bubble

D.

high population and the low rates of subsistence farming


European Settlement

15. The French settled Quebec in the 17th century primarily to obtain which economic resource?

Bubble

A.

tobacco

 

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B.

beaver fur

 

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C.

lumber

 

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D.

gold


European Settlement

16. Why was the location of Quebec desirable for French settlers?

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A.

Its northern location made it an ideal environment for agriculture.

 

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B.

Its interior location gave it access to Native American traders.

 

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C.

Its isolated location protected it from storms and natural disasters.

 

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D.

Its coastal location allowed it to become a center of sea trade.


European Settlement

17. Investors in the Virginia Company of London were disappointed that valuable metals or minerals were not found in Virginia, so they could earn a return on their investment. Virginia had other resources, and trade between Europe and Virginia grew in large part due to Virginia's cultivation and processing of which of the following agricultural products?

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A.

maize

 

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B.

wheat

 

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C.

sorghum

 

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D.

tobacco


European Settlement

18. Which of the following was a reason for the increase in the slave trade to colonial Virginia in the 17th century?

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A.

The supply of indentured servants declined as the British economy improved.

 

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B.

Surrounding colonies limited the number of slaves that could be imported.

 

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C.

The slave trade in the West Indies was disrupted and moved north to Virginia.

 

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D.

The price for slaves dropped as larger numbers of slaves became available.


European Settlement

19. The Salem Witch Trials were conducted in Massachusetts from 1692 to 1693. The closely-knit communities required their members to conform to Puritan ways of thinking and those people who did not conform were thought to be ungodly, and "in covenant" with the devil. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Puritan justice system?

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A.

There had to be more than one witness to find someone guilty of witchcraft.

 

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B.

Church leaders could sentence someone to death for violating church beliefs.

 

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C.

Someone found guilty of witchcraft could plead his or her case before the king.

 

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D.

Only elected judges could find someone guilty of violating church beliefs.


European Settlement

20. The Second Anglo-Dutch War resulted in the British takeover of New Amsterdam, which was renamed the City of New York in 1667. The Treaty of Breda allowed the British to keep New Amsterdam, and the Dutch were allowed to keep their sugar plantation in Suriname. Which of the following statements is true regarding the British conflicts with the Dutch?

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A.

The British wanted to end Dutch domination of world trade.

 

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B.

The British had blocked all Dutch trade with South America.

 

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C.

The Dutch were encroaching on British settlements in Canada.

 

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D.

Dutch privateers were attacking British shipping in the Atlantic.


European Settlement

21. In 1662, the Halfway Covenant was created by the Puritans in New England. Which of the following statements is true about the Halfway Covenant?

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A.

It granted full membership in the church without requiring an oath of allegiance.

 

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B.

It excluded church membership for immigrants and grandchildren of members.

 

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C.

It prevented non-Puritans from settling in Puritan towns in Massachusetts.

 

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D.

It provided partial church membership for children of church members.


European Settlement

22. Which of the following statements describes the purpose of the Virginia Company, chartered by King James I in 1606?

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A.

British settlements in New England were failing and needed money and settlers.

 

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B.

The British wanted to establish settlements along the coast of North America.

 

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C.

It was necessary to keep Spanish settlements from moving north into Canada.

 

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D.

French settlers pushed the British out of Canada and into New England.


European Settlement

23. New England was settled by people looking for religious freedom. The Pilgrims who arrived at Plymouth in 1620 left England, so they could worship in their own ways and without interference from others. As other settlers arrived, they found themselves in disagreement with one another. Which of the following statements is true about religious settlement in New England?

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A.

Connecticut was the first colony founded on the belief of religious toleration.

 

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B.

Plentiful land allowed different religious beliefs to thrive in the same area.

 

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C.

Settlers who disagreed with Puritan theology had to return to England.

 

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D.

Freedom of worship also meant people were allowed to not worship if they wanted.


European Settlement

24. Puritans were critical of the Church of England and the liturgy that was required by the monarchy. Once the church established itself in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Puritans restricted new colonists in how they worshipped. Many colonists felt more repressed in Massachusetts than they did in England. The result of this oppression was

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A.

the merging of the Puritans with the Scots-Irish Congregationalists.

 

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B.

an end to colonists settling in Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and New York.

 

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C.

the establishment of religious havens in new colonies such as Rhode Island.

 

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D.

a revolt against the Puritans by the followers of the Church of England.


European Settlement

25. The Dutch established New Amsterdam, now called New York City, on the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1625 near Fort Amsterdam. One of the principal reasons for locating the fort and the new town on Manhattan was to

Bubble

A.

protect the Hudson River and the Dutch West India Company's fur trade operations.

 

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B.

safeguard Dutch East India Company's access to the Chesapeake Bay area.

 

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C.

keep British settlements on the Hudson River from having access to the Atlantic.

 

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D.

provide a base of operations for Dutch settlement into Massachusetts.


European Settlement

26. William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681 based upon the principles of fair trial by jury, freedom from unjust imprisonment, free elections, and freedom of religion. The expansion and growth of Pennsylvania is different from the growth of other colonies in that

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A.

there were no competing claims for the land by other European countries.

 

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B.

territory was acquired by paying Native Americans a fair price for their land.

 

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C.

there were no Native American tribes who claimed or owned the land.

 

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D.

Penn promised the Indians protection from the French in exchange for land.


European Settlement

27. The Powhatan were a Native American tribe as well as the name of a confederacy of tribes that lived in the Tidewater area of Virginia. Nearly 40 years after the arrival of settlers in 1607, the two groups were in conflict though there were periods of peaceful coexistence. In 1622 and again in 1636, the Powhatan tried to drive the Europeans away by attacking settlements along the James River. The result of these attacks was that

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A.

the British fought back and nearly wiped out the Powhatan and their culture.

 

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B.

other tribes joined the Powhatan in defying British expansion and laws.

 

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C.

the Powhatan were pushed further west and reestablished themselves in Kentucky

 

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D.

the Native Americans successfully scared away new settlers for 100 years.


European Settlement

28.

https://app150.studyisland.com/pics/55365ChartBacon.png


Which event best fits the sequence of events?

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A.

Bacon's Rebellion

 

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B.

The Indian Removal Act

 

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C.

The French-Indian War

 

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D.

King Philip's War


European Settlement

29. The Virginia Company needed to attract more settlers to its territory. It reformed its rules by allowing settlers to own their own land. It also adopted English Common Law as the basis of the justice system instead of relying on inconsistent rulings from the governor. In 1619, the first elected legislative body in the New World was established in Jamestown. What is the name of this important legislative assembly?

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A.

House of Representatives

 

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B.

Assembly of the Commonwealth

 

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C.

House of Burgesses

 

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D.

House of Delegates


European Settlement

30. Town meetings are an important part of local government in many New England states. The town meeting is the most basic form of direct democracy and serves as a legislative body for local issues such as school districts, road maintenance, or budget approval. This type of direct democracy can be traced to the Pilgrims and their adoption of

Bubble

A.

the Magna Carta.

 

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B.

the Mayflower Compact.

 

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C.

the Constitution.

 

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D.

the Bill of Rights.


European Settlement

1629

The Massachusetts Bay Company receives a charter to settle land in America. Leaders of the company are Puritans, and they establish Massachusetts Bay as a Puritan colony.

1684

After failed attempts to exercise control over Massachusetts Bay, King Charles II revokes the colony’s charter.

1686

King James II combines the Massachusetts Bay Colony with the rest of New England’s colonies, creating the Dominion of New England.

1689

Massachusetts learns that William and Mary have replaced King James II as the monarchs of England. The Dominion of New England is ended, and Massachusetts begins to govern itself again.

1691

King William and Queen Mary create a new charter for the colony of Massachusetts.

31. Under the 1691 charter, what type of colony was Massachusetts?

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A.

a proprietary colony

 

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B.

a parliamentary colony

 

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C.

a royal colony

 

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D.

an independent colony


Post Test - Social Studies

32. In the 1840s, the slogan "54-40 or Fight!" was used to support American annexation of

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A.

Oregon.

 

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B.

New Mexico.

 

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C.

California.

 

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D.

Texas.


Post Test - Social Studies

33. Why were Native Americans forced to live on reservations in present-day Oklahoma during the Nineteenth Century?

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A.

to take advantage of ranching and mining opportunities in the West

 

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B.

to hunt the growing number of buffalo herds that blanketed the plains

 

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C.

to make room for expanding white settlement in the eastern U.S.

 

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D.

to gain land that would give them better agricultural opportunities


Post Test - Social Studies

34. Who was the Confederate general who surrendered to the North, ending the Civil War in April 1865?

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A.

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

 

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B.

Richard Ewell

 

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C.

Robert E. Lee

 

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D.

James Longstreet


Post Test - Social Studies

35. Which industry was most affected by the Pullman Strike of 1894?

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A.

railroad

 

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B.

steel

 

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C.

oil

 

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D.

coal


Post Test - Social Studies

36. During World War II, what was the major reason for relocating many Japanese-Americans to government-run internment camps?

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A.

the desire to build a stronger army to fight the Germans

 

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B.

the fear that Japanese-Americans might betray the U.S.

 

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C.

the need for workers in factories at the internment camps

 

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D.

the desire of most Japanese-Americans to escape to Japan


Post Test - Social Studies

37. How did industrialization during the late 1800s contribute to the development of organized labor?

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A.

by reducing the demand for new machinery in factories

 

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B.

by paying individuals high wages and great benefits

 

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C.

by contributing to the growth of college business programs

 

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D.

by creating low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replace


Post Test - Social Studies

38. The concept of "big stick diplomacy," which is the threat of using military force in foreign policy, is most associated with which person's presidency?

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A.

Harry S. Truman

 

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B.

Woodrow Wilson

 

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C.

Theodore Roosevelt

 

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D.

Herbert Hoover


Post Test - Social Studies

39. The basic ideas behind the Nullification Crisis were also among the basic ideas behind which of the following American conflicts?

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A.

the Mexican War

 

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B.

the American Revolution

 

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C.

the Civil War

 

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D.

the War of 1812


Post Test - Social Studies

40. How did the First Great Awakening contribute to the emergence of American identity?

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A.

It helped establish an emphasis on education.

 

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B.

It helped establish religious pluralism.

 

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C.

It helped establish separation of church and state.

 

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D.

It helped establish consent of the governed.


Post Test - Social Studies

41. During the 1960s, what was the major reason César Chavez organized the United Farm Workers?

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A.

to improve working conditions for migrant farm laborers

 

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B.

to guarantee government subsidies for U.S. fruit growers

 

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C.

to assist farm workers in securing loans to buy homes

 

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D.

to demand disaster relief for farmers in the Midwest


Post Test - Social Studies

42. W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Which idea did the NAACP promote?

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A.

achieving racial equality for African Americans

 

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B.

declaring landownership as the key to wealth

 

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C.

preserving racial segregation in the South

 

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D.

using threats of violence to gain equal rights


Post Test - Social Studies

43. Which of the following is an example of a cause-and-effect pairing of events that occurred during the 1920s?

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A.

victory in World War I and the outbreak of urban riots

 

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B.

labor strife and the downfall of powerful unions

 

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C.

prohibition and the rise of organized crime

 

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D.

fear of foreigners and the start of the Great Depression


Post Test - Social Studies

44. Which of the following was one of the results of the Spanish-American War?

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A.

The U.S. gave up a great deal of territory to Spain.

 

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B.

The U.S. suffered a significant loss of life.

 

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C.

The U.S. became less interested in foreign affairs.

 

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D.

The U.S. established itself as a global power.


Post Test - Social Studies

45. Why did some American colonists object to paying taxes to Great Britain?

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A.

The colonies did not receive military protection from Britain.

 

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B.

The colonies did not have representation in Parliament.

 

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C.

The colonies were the only part of the empire that was taxed.

 

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D.

The colonies paid more taxes than Britain itself did.


Post Test - Social Studies

46. In addition to prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin, what did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 establish?

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A.

penalties for practicing affirmative action

 

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B.

exceptions for job-related discrimination

 

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C.

legal consequences for discrimination

 

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D.

an official definition of housing discrimination


Post Test - Social Studies

47.

     Don't be afraid to . . . read every book, as long as any document does not offend our own ideas of decency. That should be the only censorship.
     How will we defeat communism unless we know what it is, what it teaches, and why does it have such an appeal for men, why are so many people swearing allegiance to it?

—President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953


Which social condition was the main factor prompting President Eisenhower's speech?

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A.

the president's attempts to restrict conservative influence

 

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B.

the churches' attempts to promote religious tolerance

 

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C.

Martin Luther King Jr.'s attempts to increase literacy rates

 

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D.

Senator Joseph McCarthy's attempts to limit free speech


Post Test - Social Studies

48.

https://app150.studyisland.com/pics/DustBowl.jpg
NOAA George E. Marsh Album, April 18, 1935


The photograph above presents a scene from the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Which factor was a major cause of the Dust Bowl in the Great Plains?

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A.

cutting down too many trees

 

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B.

government programs

 

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C.

burning coal for power

 

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D.

long-term drought


Post Test - Social Studies

49. Which president is linked to the "trickle-down theory" of economics?

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A.

Ronald Reagan

 

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B.

George H.W. Bush

 

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C.

Bill Clinton

 

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D.

Jimmy Carter


Post Test - Social Studies

50. The War of 1812 ended when which treaty was signed?

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A.

the Treaty of Paris

 

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B.

the Treaty of Ghent

 

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C.

the Adams-Onís Treaty

 

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D.

the Treaty of Versailles


Post Test - Social Studies

51.

• The war was fought on American territory.
• 5,000 former slaves joined the Continental Army.
• Britain lost interest in fighting a long, costly war.


The list above contains reasons the Americans won the Revolutionary War. What other reason contributed to their success?

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A.

Most Native Americans aided the U.S.

 

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B.

The Americans had a larger navy.

 

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C.

France supported the United States.

 

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D.

American soldiers were better trained.


Post Test - Social Studies

52. Which factor was a major cause of the Great Depression of the 1930s?

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A.

increased taxes to pay veterans as demanded by the American Bonus Army in 1932

 

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B.

excessive borrowing to buy stocks leading to the stock market crash of 1929

 

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C.

high protective tariff rates brought on by the McKinley Tariff of 1890

 

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D.

farmers raising crop prices with the creation of the Federal Farm Marketing Board in 1930


Post Test - Social Studies

53. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments granted greater political rights to

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A.

women.

 

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B.

former soldiers.

 

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C.

former slaves.

 

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D.

children.


Post Test - Social Studies

54.

• favored a strong national government
• favored a national bank
• was supported by bankers, merchants and other businessmen


Which 18th century political party is described in the box above?

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A.

Whig

 

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B.

Populist

 

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C.

Democratic-Republican

 

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D.

Federalist


Post Test - Social Studies

55. Which three countries were known as the "Big Three" during World War II?

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A.

Germany, Italy, and Japan

 

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B.

United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union

 

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C.

United States, Canada, and Mexico

 

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D.

United Kingdom, France, and Germany


Post Test - Social Studies

56. Which treaty brought an end to World War I but failed to maintain a lasting peace in Europe?

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A.

Treaty of Paris

 

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B.

Treaty of Ghent

 

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C.

Treaty of London

 

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D.

Treaty of Versailles


Post Test - Social Studies

57. What was one result of the rapid growth of U.S. cities in the early 20th century?

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A.

Prices for consumer goods became unstable.

 

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B.

Farm production declined significantly.

 

Bubble

C.

Fewer educational opportunities were available.

 

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D.

The population in slums increased.


Post Test - Social Studies

58. Which of the following is one of the reasons that the United States invaded Iraq in 2003?

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A.

The U.S. wanted to take control of Iraq's oil fields.

 

Bubble

B.

The U.S. believed that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction.

 

Bubble

C.

The U.S. believed that Iraq was protecting al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden.

 

Bubble

D.

The U.S. wanted to liberate Kuwait which had been invaded by Iraq.


Post Test - Social Studies

59. What was the result when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I in 1957?

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A.

It was the first time the Soviet Union invested any time into space technology.

 

Bubble

B.

It started the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

 

Bubble

C.

It was the first time the Soviet Union successfully created a nuclear weapon.

 

Bubble

D.

It was the beginning of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union.


Post Test - Social Studies

60. Which of the following best describes the U.S. foreign policy of containment used during the Cold War?

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A.

The U.S. worked to maintain peace throughout the world.

 

Bubble

B.

The U.S. wanted to become less involved in foreign affairs.

 

Bubble

C.

The U.S. wanted to prevent the spread of communism.

 

Bubble

D.

The U.S. hoped to become more allied with the Soviet Union.


Post Test - Social Studies

61.

There comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression. . . . I want it to be known that we're going to work with grim and bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city. And we are not wrong. . . .

—Martin Luther King, Jr., 1965


According to this excerpt, what idea did Martin Luther King, Jr., oppose?

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A.

restrictions on the hiring of minority bus drivers

 

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B.

segregated seating on Montgomery's city buses

 

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C.

limited city bus routes for African American riders

 

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D.

higher fees charged to African American bus riders


Post Test - Social Studies

62. In the 1840s, the slogan "54-40 or Fight!" was used to support American annexation of

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A.

Oregon.

 

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B.

New Mexico.

 

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C.

Texas.

 

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D.

California.


Answers

1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. C
8. C
9. B
10. B
11. A
12. D
13. B
14. C
15. B
16. B
17. D
18. A
19. B
20. A
21. D
22. B
23. B
24. C
25. A
26. B
27. A
28. A
29. C
30. B
31. C
32. A
33. C
34. C
35. A
36. B
37. D
38. C
39. C
40. B
41. A
42. A
43. C
44. D
45. B
46. C
47. D
48. D
49. A
50. B
51. C
52. B
53. C
54. D
55. B
56. D
57. D
58. B
59. B
60. C
61. B
62. A

Explanations

1. Life expectancy in colonial New England was higher because the settlers' population was low, and nearly everyone took care of his or her own needs through small farms. The climate and geography of New England helped facilitate this type of living.

2. The passage refers to disease and famine as straining the colonists. The Jamestown colonists originally had very little understanding of how to grow crops suitable to the area's environment (such as corn), and they were not accustomed to surviving in wilderness.

3. While waterways were not the only means by which colonial people could travel, they were the most effective way to transport goods over long distances. Combined with the fact that these waterways connected to the Atlantic Ocean, giving access to England and other overseas trade, the waterways were crucial to America's economy.

4. Though the colonies were all English, the backgrounds and motives of the people who settled them were diverse. Regional differences in both climate and natural resources guaranteed that each section would have a distinct culture. It is no surprise that New England—composed of Puritan refugees trying to farm on difficult soil—would develop differently than Virginia—a proprietary-turned-royal colony suited to growing crops.

5. Many of the New England settlers were Puritans escaping from religious persecution in England. The region's northern location and poor farmland meant that its winters were cold and difficult.

6. While colonists often had a desire to settle westward, they lacked the means to do so reliably. Settlements needed to be near waterways since boats were the most effective way to travel, and there was very little technology to help people overcome barriers such as mountains.

7. The Southern Colonies were the first of the three regions permanently settled by England. The area was settled by aristocratic proprietors, and its climate and soil were more favorable to plantation farming than that of the other colonies. Both of these aspects contributed to the development of Southern culture.

8. In the early days of colonial North America, New England was considered the poorest region. This was due mostly to the cold climate and rocky soil. New Englanders were able to cultivate small farms to support their families, but many died in the harsh winters.

9. Immigrants were attracted to the available land and more tolerant religious atmosphere of the Middle Colonies. This was in contrast to the New England Colonies, whose populations increased mainly through birthrate.

10. Slaves in the Chesapeake region worked to grow tobacco while those in South Carolina worked to grow rice. Rice farming was more physically demanding than tobacco farming, and the swampy conditions of rice fields meant that slaves were more vulnerable to mosquitoes and the diseases they carried.

11. Policies of freehold ownership (people could own land themselves instead of paying landlords) in Pennsylvania and the Middle colonies attracted immigrants from diverse backgrounds, bringing with them diverse religions. The region's religious tolerance encouraged these immigrants. Though William Penn had founded Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers, the Quaker positions on pacifism and religious freedom ensured they would not be the Middle colonies' sole, dominating belief system.

12. The passage describes how the northern and southern climates and geography influenced the types of crops grown. Depending on the crop, different levels of labor were required. Southern plantations became more dependent on slavery to make a profit from their crops.

13. New York's economy relied on a variety of commodities from agriculture and other provisions developed for export. New York City was perfectly located on the banks of the Hudson River, allowing for bustling trade from both sea and inland sources.

14. Life expectancy in colonial New England was higher because the settlers' population was low, and nearly everyone took care of his or her own needs through small farms. The climate and geography of New England helped facilitate this type of living.

15. At the end of the 16th century, American furs became a popular fashion in Europe. Beaver hats were especially desired by European gentlemen. The French built Quebec as an outpost for fur trading. Some French settlers trapped beavers themselves. Quebec soon became Europe's main source of beaver fur.

16. The St. Lawrence River connected Quebec to the Atlantic Ocean, but the colony's interior location was deeper within Native American territory than English or Dutch colonies were. The French were able to use this advantageous location to dominate the fur trade to Europe.

17. Virginia's soil and climate is very good for tobacco production. Europeans did not like Virginia's type of tobacco, so sweeter varieties were brought in from the Caribbean. Tobacco became the most important export for the Virginia Company and helped Great Britain balance its trade deficit with Spain.

18. Until the late 17th century, most slaves from Africa were sent to the Caribbean. Slaves imported in to the American colonies were usually purchased as indentured servants who would be able to earn or buy their freedom. That changed in the second half of the 17th century as more opportunities became available in England for poor Britons, and the number of indentured servants coming in to the colonies dropped dramatically. These workers were replaced by the slave trade.

19. The Puritans had created a theocracy in which the church could rule in civil matters, even sentencing someone to death for violations of church beliefs. The magistrates used several methods, none of which would stand up in a court of law today, to determine the guilt or innocence of someone who was accused of witchcraft.

20. The wars between the British and the Dutch were primarily over who would control world trade and the shipping lanes in the Atlantic. The British tried to limit Dutch influence by requiring that only British ships could deliver goods in the New World. British shipping provoked the Dutch into confrontation and eventually treaties were signed that resulted in Britain controlling most of the North American coast from the Middle Atlantic region to New England.

21. The Halfway Covenant was created in response to the large number of new immigrants to the New World who were not Puritans. It was also applied to the children and grandchildren of church members who were not seen as pious enough for full membership. It was a shortcut to church membership for people who agreed to live by Puritan rules even though they may not have had a conversion experience.

22. The British wanted to establish settlements along the North American Atlantic coast, and King James I chartered the Virginia Company of London (London Company) and the Virginia Company of Plymouth (Plymouth Company). The territories overlapped in the Mid-Atlantic region, and after an initial failure at settlement in Maine, the Plymouth Company finally had a permanent settlement at Plymouth in Massachusetts. In 1609, a new charter was granted to the London Company, which included the Plymouth Company territory.

23. The first Pilgrims came to the New World seeking a place to worship freely. That freedom did not extend to others who might disagree. So when two preachers and their followers disagreed, one would move on to another town. Settlements spread throughout the region as people looked for places to worship according to their own beliefs.

24. The Puritans wanted freedom to worship as they pleased but required those who settled in their colony to follow Puritan theology. The result of the persecution of non-Puritans was the establishment of other colonies. Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and New Hampshire were settled as havens of religious freedom from the Puritans.

25. New Amsterdam was strategically located at the mouth of the Hudson River. From this point, the Dutch could control the fur trade along the river and maintain control of New Netherland's claims to the surrounding territory, including the river estuaries of the Delaware and Connecticut Rivers.

26. William Penn was a Quaker and a champion for democracy and religious freedom. His beliefs in treating people fairly extended to his business dealings with the Native Americans. Pennsylvania territory grew through land purchases instead of wars and fighting for control of the territory.

27. When settlers first arrived from England, they knew they would have to make peace with the Native Americans if they were to survive. Though there were conflicts between the groups, there were also periods of peace. But British settlements kept growing and outpaced the growth of the Powhatan. Fearing they would soon be outnumbered, the Powhatan attacked first hoping to scare the British away. But the British responded by nearly destroying the Powhatan culture.

28. Nathaniel Bacon's primary complaint against Governor Berkeley and the government in Jamestown was about the need to stop Indian attacks on the frontier. The poorest farmers were forced away from the coast to lands at risk of Indian attacks. The governor refused to act because he was protecting his trade agreements with the Indians.

29. The House of Burgesses was made up of men elected by landowners to represent the cities and plantations of Virginia. Though the governor, the council, or the directors could override its decisions, the House of Burgesses enacted laws and provided a voice in government for landowning Virginian men.

30. The Mayflower Compact was signed by the Pilgrims arriving from England as a basis for governing their new society. They realized other settlements failed because of poor governance. The settlers agreed to follow the compact's rules and regulations to survive, and in return, the government that was formed from the compact would obtain its power from the consent of the people.

31. Massachusetts Bay began as a proprietary colony controlled by the Massachusetts Bay Company. The colony had disagreements with England, however, mainly due to the Puritan clergy refusing rights to other religious groups such as Anglicans, Quakers, and Catholics. In 1691, Massachusetts was chartered as a royal colony—a colony whose governor is appointed by the monarch.